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十八忆

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浅谈so(such)…that结构  

2009-12-07 17:54:09|  分类: 教育教学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  1.  

   浅谈so(such)…that结构

                                              吉林松原    杨柏金  

           Such…that和so…that两种结构

  都可以引导结果状语从句,但又都包含有“程度”的

  意味,所以在使用时往往混淆。现区别如下:

       一、such…that是关联从属连词,意思是“……

  那地……(因此)……”;“如此……以致于……”。

   such是形容词,表示程度,说明其后的名词。其基本

   结构是“such+名词+that从句”。有如下几种形式:

  1、such+a(an)+单数名词+that+从句。例如:

    I feel one must live in such a way that others 

    may live better

   我觉得要使自己活着,就是为了使别人过得更美好。   

   The enemy troops were seized with such a 

   panic that they fled in great disorder.

   敌军如此恐慌以致溃不成军。

 2、such+a(an)+形容词+单数+that从句。例如:

    Mike is such an honest boy that everybody likes him

   迈克是一个诚实的孩子,人人都喜欢他。

    I was having such a nice time that I didn`t want 

    to leave

    我玩得好极了,都不想走了。

  3、such+复数名词+that从句。例如:

    The teacher has such students that he feels

   very happy.

    这位教师有这样的学生,他感觉很幸福。

    Whales are such animals that they can make

    many kinds of sounds and talk to each other

    鲸是这样的动物,能够发出声音并互相交谈。

  4、such+形容词+复数名词+that从句。(形容词

     many和few除外)例如:

    They are such good books that we all enjoy

     reading them.

    这些书是这样好,我们大家都喜欢读。

    He has such long arms that he can touch the

    picture on the wall.

    他有一双长臂,足可以摸着墙上的画

  5、such+不可数名词+that从句;例如

     He had such confidence in himself that he 

     did not consult anybody.

     他是那样的自信,以致跟任何人都没有商量过。

     It is such weather that we can't go out for a walk .

     这样的天气,我们无法出去散步。

  6、such+形容词+不可数名数+that从句。(形容

      词much和little除外,其中l ittle当“少”讲。)

      例如:   

      This book is written in such  easy 

      English that  beginners can understand   it.   

      这本书是用浅显英文写的,所以初学者也能读懂。

      This is such beautiful furniture that I'm

      thinking of buying it.

      这家俱太漂亮了,我打算把它买下来。 

  7、such+(a)little+(单)复数名词+that从句。

      (其中 little当“小的”讲。)

        例如:

       They are such little children that they 

       can't   do anything.

       孩子们如此之小,以致于不能做任何事情。

       He is such a little man that he isn't fit for 

       the standard.

       他这样矮小,不合标准。

    二、so…that也是关联从属连词。意思也是“如此……

         以致于……”,其中so是副词,表示“如此”之意,

         说明后的形容词、副词等达到“如此”的程度,便

         产生什么样的结果。其基本结构是:“so+形容词副

         词等+that 从句。”有如下几种形式:

  1、so+形容词+that从句。例如

       The man is so strong that he can move the big stone.

       这个人如此强壮可以搬动这块大石头。

    You are so big and the jar is so small

    that it  could  hardly hold one of your feet.

    你那么大,坛子那么小,它几乎装不下你的一个脚指头

 2、so+副词+that从句。例如

    He spoke so rapidly that we could not 

    clearly understand him.

    他说得太快,使我们不能了解他的意思。

    You must not go so far that you cannot come back

     in  an hour.

    你别走得太远了,免得一个小时内回不来。

 3、so+分词+that从句。例如:

    The book is so written that it gives a quite 

    wrong idea of the facts.

    这本书的写法使人对事实产生误解。

    I was so astonished that I could not utter even a word.

    我吃惊得说不出话来了。

 4、so+动词+that从句。引导结果或目的状语从句。

      例如:He so used all his skill that he invented

                 a new type of machine.

     他充分地发挥了全部技能,终于发明了一种新型机器。

     We have so arranged matters that one of us is

   always on duty.

     我们已经做了安排,使我们当中总有一人在值班。

 5、so+many/few(much/little)+复数名词(不可数名

     词)+that从句。其中m any和much均当“多”讲,

     little和few均当“少”讲。many和few均修饰复数名

     词,much和little均修饰不可数名词.例如:

    I've had so many falls that I'm black and blue all over.

    我跌了那么多跤,以致全身青一块紫一块。

    The house cost so much money that we didn't buy it.

    那房子要价很高,我们没有买。

    There were so few books left that they are not 

     enough for me to buy.

    剩下的书太少了,不够我买的。

    Mike had so little milk that he couldn't share it

    with others.

    迈克的牛奶太少了,无法与别人分享了。

 三、有时也可以把so+形容词.副词置于句首,主句的

    词序倒装,但不要将that从句放在句首。例如:

    So small is his income that he can not support 

    his family.

    他收入太少,不能养家。

    So bitter was the coffee that I couldn't drink it.

    这咖啡太苦,我没能喝。

    不可说:That I couldn't drink it the coffee was 

                 so bitter

 四、so…that和such…that的相互转换。

    “so+形容词+a/an+单数可数名词”相当于

    “such+ a/an+形容词+单数可数名词”。但要注意

     不定冠词的位置。

     例如:

     He is so good a teacher that all of us like him.

     →He is such a good teacher that all of us like him.

     这位教师太好了,我们大家都喜欢他。

     Mr Li gave us so exciting a talk that we were all

     moved.

    →Mr Li gave us such an exciting talk that we were

       all moved.

    李先生给我们做的报告太令人激动了,我们都感动了。

 五、so…that结构可与too…to或enough to结构转换。

  1、当从句是肯定句时,若主句和从句的主语一致,

      一般可与enough to转换。有些句子还能用too…to

     结构转换,但要将不定式变为否定结构。例如:

     My brother is so strong that he can carry the big box.

    →My brother is strong enough to carry the big box.

    我哥哥很强壮足可以扛动那个大箱子。

    She is so careful that she has noticed it.

    →She is careful enough to have noticed it.

    →She is too careful not to have noticed it.

    她那么细心,不会不注意到这一点。

 2、若主句与从句的主语不一致时,转换成too…to

    结构或enough to结构时,要将不定式变为不定式的

    复合结构。例如:

    The problem is so difficult that he can not answer it .

    →The problem is too difficult for him to answer.

    这个问题太难,他答不上。

    The ice is so hard that you can skate on.

    →The ice is hard enough for you to skate on.

    这冰很坚硬,你可以在上面滑冰。

 3、在否定句中,三者可互相转换,但将too…to和

     enough to转换时,应该用句中形容词或副词的反义词。

     例如:

    Tom is so young that he can't do the job.

    →Tom is too young to do the job .

    →Tom is not old enough to do the job.

    汤姆太小不能做这活。

 六、在非正式语体中,由so…that,such(a)…that引导

    的从句,往往省略连词that。这时从句之前往往用逗

    号与主句隔开,在口语中则用停顿来表示省略。

    例如:

    He was so tired(,)(that)he could hardly stand.

    他太累了,几乎站不住了。 

    Tom is such a good boy(,)(that) he is 

     loved by everybody

    汤姆是个好孩子,人人喜爱他。

    但省略that而不用逗号者也很常见。例如:

    You walk so fast(that) I can't keep pace with you.

    你走路那么快,我无法跟上你。

    We left in such a hurry(that)we forgot to lock the

    door.

    我们匆忙动身,以致忘了锁门。

          省略了连词that,分句位置便比较灵活,既可位于

    原因分句之前,也可位于其后,这时因果关系只存在于

    意义上,从形式上看也可以说是并列句。例如:

    He was so tired,he could hardly stand.

    We couldn't get in ,there were so many people 

    in  the room.

    屋里人太多,我们进不去。

        

 

 

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